# RADIAL LOAD FLOW STUDY & OPTIMUM BATTERY LOCATION_MATLAB2

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1. Develop 3-Phase Radial Load-flow Program & set up Feeder Model.

a) Develop a radial load flow program and set up a uniformly distributed load feeder model of 10

equal loads. Total feeder load = 100 kVA (3-phase), at peak, operating at 0.9 power factor

lagging. Total feeder length = 500 m. The cable impedance = 0.315 +j0.365

Δ Y

2. Perform Radial Load-flow with Embedded Solar.

a) With the loads the same, allow for embedded solar at each node. Use the residential load

curve. The solar sources are generators, so they will be represented by negative real power

loads. Assume they will operate at unity power factor. Run the load flow again for 5 pm

afternoon peak load conditions. The embedded solar = 0.3 * peak load. Record your results.

Comment on the improvement in feeder current and voltage drop.

b) Now, run the load flow for residential midday light load conditions, when embedded solar =

peak load value, but the midday load is 0.3 * peak load (i.e. embedded solar = 3 * midday load).

Record your results. Comment on the feeder current and voltage drop. What happens to the

voltage drop? What is the voltage spread at the end of the feeder (node #10) from midday to

evening peak situations with solar present?

3. Perform Radial Load-flow with Embedded Solar & Energy Storage Units.

a) Using the same peak residential loads as before, consider one or more storage units being

turned on over the peak period, so that they can lop 30% off the daily peak load. From the

residential daily load curve in the Addendum, calculate by numerical integration (counting the

squares) the total storage unit energy capacity required to achieve a 30% peak load lop for the

residential load curves for the whole LV feeder. (iii) What is the maximum load reduction

possible through the use of energy storage and the energy required?

b) Run the load flow for the 30% peak lop case, assuming the storage is split into 10 equal storage

units of same total capacity as in a). Assume the storage units act as generators running at unity

power factor. Compare to the base peak load case in section 1 b). Comment on improvements

in feeder current and voltage drop.

c) Now assume the storage is available in only one unit of same total capacity as above. Perform

several runs of your load flow with the storage unit at several locations, including last node

(#10), first node (#1) and also at several other positions along the feeder. What yields the best result, in terms of feeder current and voltage drop? How does this compare with section 3 b)

above?

Distribution

transformer 1 2 9 10

415 V radial feeder

MV 415 V bus

Load+Solar+Storage

Cable impedance Z = 0.315+j0.365 ohms/ph/km

Fig 1 – The Test Low Voltage 10-node Radial Distribution Feeder

V

Power Systems Plan & Economics Assignment 2020

Page 3

ohms/phase/kilometre. The peak load refers to the residential load curve at about 5 pm (refer

Addendum).

b) Run your load flow. Are current and voltage constraints being exceeded? Current constraint =

200 A/phase; voltage constraint = 415 V +/- 5%. If the supply end voltage was raised above 415

V would this solve any peak load?

c) Now, run the load flow for light-load conditions = 30% of peak load conditions (refer to the

residential load curve at about 11 am). Are voltage constraints being exceeded? Record all your

feeder current (supply end) and voltage drops. If the supply volts is raised as in 1(b) are voltages

too high in light-load conditions?

d) The load at node #10 is a large induction motor and is a fluctuating load. Its starting current is 5

times its normal running load (as in part 1(b)) and starting power factor is 0.4 lagging. Re-run

your load flow and determine the change in voltage drop, at both node #9 and node #10. Is the

voltage drop at node #10 > 10%? Is the voltage drop at node #9 (the “common point of

coupling”) > 4%?

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