Opportunity Cost of decisions (both explicit AND implicit).
• Incentives to make decisions for firms and consumers.
• The Cost-Benefit principle: do not do something unless the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal
• Markets tend towards equilibriums where supply equals demand if there is no government
• Efficiency is an important social goal, because when we have more of everything, people can share
in that more (in theory!).
• Markets and individuals generally ignore external costs and benefits, leading to socially inefficient
• Government intervention in markets is sometimes necessary.
• Often Government intervention does not work.
• Real GDP growth is an important, but imperfect, measure of economic progress